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PSNet: Patient Safety Network
Journal Article
Review

Patient safety over power hierarchy: a scoping review of healthcare professionals' speaking-up skills training.

Kim S, Appelbaum NP, Baker N, et al. J Healthc Qual. 2020;42(5):249-263.

This review summarizes studies of training programs targeting healthcare professionals’ speaking up skills. The authors found that most training programs were limited to a one-time training delivered to a single profession (i.e., limited to doctors or nurses).  The majority of programs addressed legitimate power (i.e., social norms such as titles) but few addressed other types of power (e.g., reward or coercive power, personal resources) or the non-verbal (i.e., emotional) skills required in speaking-up behaviors.